USE OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS IN ANIMAL FARMINGUpdate: 3/31/2015
Molasses is used in livestock to improve palatability, some mineral supplements for animal feed. Corn stalks after harvest with the highest nutritional value of all kinds of grain by-products, and so it has great potential in improving the nutrition of cattle. According to the results of our studies (Dinh Van Innovation and collaboration in 1999), the corn stalks after harvest with 25-26% dry matter; 32% crude fiber; 68.7% NDF; Digestibility of organic matter: 53.3% and energy exchange for cattle: 7.46 MJ / kg DM. Biggest obstacle to the use of corn stalks after harvest is dry so need flatting equipment, cut short, before feeding dried or dried using low.
Straw in our country but there is a huge volume ratio used in cattle production is still modest. Most of us are used as fuel (in the north), or directly burn rice paddy fields as a fertilizer, a small amount is used as a mushroom (in the south). Straw can be used as a primary food source for cattle for draft, breeding. Straw is also a very good source of fiber to coordinate with puree food, food supplements more expensive in the dairy and beef fattening ..
Straw bulky and of lower quality than the corn stalks. If only fed rice straw alone, the cattle can eat only a small amount. Rice straw is rich in potassium but lacks soluble calcium (Ca) is capable of absorbing., So the animals are nourished by the rice straw is the need to add resources digestible calcium. Rice straw lignin components also low (6-7%) but high silica component (12-16%) than any other crop residues (usually about 10-12% silica). High silica component is the main cause leading to poor digestibility. The body digests more rice leaf should therefore harvest level as low as possible.
Rations mainly rice straw with a small amount of supplementary feed for calves will grow slowly, at first calving age 4-5 years, rickets and cows have lower conception rates.
Straw were incubated with 4-5% urea will increase digestibility (from 39 to 52%) energy value increased from 4.74 to 5.49 MJ MJ / kg DM. Intake potential of cattle with straw bale straw is higher than non-annealed (2,6kg compared with 1.6 kg DM / 100 kg weight).
Bagasse valuable energy and protein is very low, but this is a useful source of fiber. Can use up to 25% of the diet of milking cows. Experience fattening Xiaqing gold in China's Zou and collaborators showed that gold could fattening foods diets: Bagasse (35-41%), molasses (5%) and concentrate (bran and corn). After 100 days of fattening achieved an average increase Precautions: 866-921 grams / day
When annealed fiber products with urea or urea supplementation, a cheap source of nitrogen in the diet, will ensure an increase in digestibility and intake potential of livestock. Fiber digestion is improved clarity while adding a small amount of easily fermentable carbohydrates such as molasses, wheat identify, sweet potato, bran ...
When using non-protein nitrogen, sulfur is the main limiting factor to the activity of rumen microorganisms. A mixture of 90% urea and 10% sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) makes the ratio N / S is balanced. Straw is usually calcium, phosphorus and low salt. The addition of cobalt (Co), copper (Cu) will improve diet based on rice straw. Digestibility of the straw will be significantly improved if additional 1.5-2% urea and 10% molasses and 0.5% mineral mixture (salt, P, Ca, S) ..
Rice bran has a very different quality depending on the milling process. Rice bran is less racy husk so the total fiber content is low (6-7%) TDN value of 70% and 13-14% crude protein, energy exchange from 12 to 12.5 MJ / kg of dry matter. Bad quality rice bran fiber content up to 20%. Rice bran is a good type of feed materials is very valuable to cattle, so the good kind of rice bran also very high.
Beer wort, crude protein distillers grains from 26% -32% (dry matter basis). Byproducts are used in wet, dry or chilled brewed with molasses and organic acids. Wort of the beer brewery us under our analysis, 32% protein; 18% fiber (dry matter basis); digestibility of organic matter reaching 68% and metabolizable energy value of 12 MJ / kg dry matter (equivalent to rice bran good kind). Beer wort medium protein, medium energy rich should have long been widely used for dairy. High humidity is the main disadvantage of stockpiling and use of feeds.
By-product meal is after the oilseeds are pressed or squeezed for oil processing. Such as copra, peanuts, cottonseed, crude rubber ... Protein meal ranged from 20-40%. Ability to proteolysis and amount of oil depends on the processing method. EUP by manual methods (screw press) oil content of about 10% during forced out method (extraction) of oil fell 1%. Fiber also vary greatly depending on the number of processors and seed pods.
Dried coconut oil as a source of energy and protein values are used extensively
However, digestibility and low protein feed them rancid quickly scorched. Copra inflate quickly when wet and can be used in this format at 50% of the diet
Dry peanut oil is widely used in meat and dairy husbandry nuoibo. Low fiber content and no restriction in the use of the ruminant
Dry oil containing gossypol cotton is not harmful for adult cattle, but cattle weight gains will be improved if more iron sulfate to the diet has many cotton oil cake. Can use 10-15% cotton oil cakes in feed mixtures for calves, beef for possible use by 30%.
Cottonseed materials are also used to replace a portion of concentrate. Good variety of whole grains contain about 20% oil and 19% protein. Cotton seed pods contain more fiber (50% CF) but could use 30% of the diet of beef cattle. Experiments beef fattening of Le Viet Ly has successfully used fattening ration of cottonseed 2kg + 2kg molasses urea + straw bale.
Soybean meal is often expensive and is used for monogastric animals. Soybean seed coat containing 37% CF, 12% CP and energy value equivalent to the grain is a valuable food for all types of cattle.
A general limitation in the use of Dry Oil for raising the concentration of byproducts of oil remaining high, rancid or unpleasant, short shelf life. The disadvantage is that the oil dried Aspergillus susceptible to toxin aflatoxin, particularly in dry peanut oil. Overcome these limitations, oilseeds products are valuable protein source in livestock
Molasses is used in livestock to improve palatability, some mineral supplements. Molasses is also used as a food supplement for energy raw food diets of poor quality. With an easily fermentable sugar content is high, molasses as a cheap energy source for use with all kinds of non-protein nitrogen. Minerals need to be rebalanced because molasses contains less phosphorus and sodium and not enough sulfur for microbial activity in the rumen. Potassium in high molasses.